The problems for the two Oscars – one, a political scientist, and the other, a pediatrician - began in 2015.
At the end of that year, both Sampayo and Blanco reported that the water consumed by the people of Barrancabermeja was not suitable for human consumption, because the San Silvestre Marsh, the wetland that supplies the city's aqueduct and 190,000 inhabitants, registered alarming increases in heavy metals, including mercury.
"There was a year in which I diagnosed 18 children with a very rare disease that consists of an immunological alteration. I started to look at what could be happening and, with the help of other colleagues, we saw that there was a direct relationship with exposure to heavy metals, including mercury", recalls Blanco, an individual well respected by people in Barrancabermeja for his charisma, his vocation of service and his commitment to environmental causes.
"At that time, a trade unionist friend from Aguas de Barrancabermeja - the company in charge of the local aqueduct - gave me a report that the company had saved, written by the Bolivariana University, which indicated an increase of up to 25 percent in heavy metals, including mercury, in the marsh", adds the doctor.
Thus began a row between environmentalists, the aqueduct company and the local mayor, Darío Echeverri. The disagreement intensified when Sampayo and Blanco pointed out that the deterioration of the marsh’s water quality was due to the construction of the Yerbabuena landfill in the neighborhood of Patio Bonito, in the heart of the District of the Integrated Management of Natural Resources of San Silvestre Marsh.
"The landfill was placed in the heart of an area that is considered an environmental reserve, with all the irregularities that you want," says Sampayo, who set aside his work as a real estate entrepreneur to devote himself, in full, to the defense and protection of the environment. According to Sampayo, "the Oxy oil company donated the land where the works were done and that place would coincide with one of the blocks that Ecopetrol wants to exploit using fracking."
"They degraded a territory that was an environmental reserve," Sampayo continues, "because it is being degraded on account of the leachates that are spilling over the marsh, so that the environmental authority will then say: 'Well, there's nothing to protect, you can carry out fracking.'
Among the evidence that Sampayo presents is that, in 2013, the Autonomous Regional Corporation of Santander (CAS) - the regional environmental authority - approved "the theft of an area of the Regional District of Integrated Management of the San Silvestre Wetland for the construction and operation of a final disposal site for solid waste.”
That approval was given after the company Entorno Verde S.A E.S.P. conducted a technical study that showed the feasibility of the work, which was awarded in 2014 to the construction company Construvías de Colombia S.A. (Construvicol) and that came into operation in 2015 with the labor of Rediba S.A. E.S.P.
The complaints of the environmentalists reached the ears of the Office of the Attorney General of the Nation. As part of an anti-corruption day that took place in Barrancabermeja on June 13, 2017, the Office of the Attorney General collected evidence and testimonies from residents of the neighborhood of Patio Bonito, which, two months later, allowed him to order the arrest of the then manager of Rediba, Liliana Forero, accused of the crimes of procedural fraud, damage to aggravated natural resources, damage to natural resources in homogeneous with environmental contamination, concealment and destruction of probative material and invasion of property. On September 22 of the same year, a judge from Barrancabermeja ordered her imprisonment.
This company, together with Construvicol and Entorno Verde, is connected to Reinaldo Bohórquez, a powerful contractor who has executed infrastructure works in several municipalities of Santander and manages the garbage business in Barrancabermeja, Floridablanca and Girón and the final disposal of waste generated by oil exploitation. His company Construvicol will be responsible, in partnership with the Spanish company Aqualia Intech, for the construction of the Solid Waste Treatment Plant (PTP) of Barrancabermeja.
In political circles in Santander, he is recognized for financing political campaigns, including Darío Echeverri, who was elected in the last elections for Mayor in Barrancabermeja. "I participated in his campaign because he said he would not allow the landfill. In fact, when the Mayor wins, I am appointed Liaison Officer for the Mayor's Office with the CAS," says Sampayo, who adds that, "after six months the man changes his position, they dismiss me and give him free rein over the landfill. Publicly it was said that it had been financed by Bohórquez."
This led to a recall process led by several citizens of Barrancabermeja, including the pediatrician and Óscar Sampayo. Echeverri managed to maintain his mandate at the polls, but, in February 2018, the Attorney General's Office arrested him for the crimes of constraint to the voter, obstruction of the electoral contest, embezzlement and conspiracy to commit a crime. According to the Attorney General’s Office, Echeverri resorted to corrupt practices to prevent voters from turning out in masse on the day organized for the recall.
It has not been the only fight that Sampayo and Blanco have had against Bohorquez's lawyers. In a humorous tone, both assure that they have had to attend the judicial courts so many times in the last years that both of them lost count.
"We report the presence of leachates in the water of Barrancabermeja due to the operation of the landfill. We also note that the environmental authorities have turned a blind eye so as not to take any kind of action against this man. What has that cost us? Well, in my case, being victim of the biggest smear campaign by the lawyers of Bohórquez’s companies," says the doctor Óscar Yesid Blanco.
According to Blanco, a local journalist posted a false news article about him on his website. After the doctor reported him for slander, the journalist acknowledged before the judge that he had received a payment from one of the lawyers for Rediba S.A.'s. E.S.P, one of Bohórquez’s companies.
"It turns out that a journalist, Gustavo Duarte, published on his website, La Tea Noticia, a false news article about me," continues the pediatrician. “I reported him for slander. Before the judge, the journalist acknowledged that the lawyer, Cristián Gutiérrez, who we later learned worked for Rediba S.A. E.S.P, Bohórquez's company, paid him to publish lies about me. That process was carried out by the Prosecutor's Office in Barrancabermeja."
The pressures against both environmentalists intensified as the severity of their complaints increased. In October 2018, Sampayo managed to become part of a protection scheme of the National Government Protection Unit. The doctor, who did not have the same luck, received a call in November from the Regional Corporation for the Defense of Human Rights (Credhos), a regional NGO on human rights issues.
"They told me: 'Doctor, we have very serious information, from very reliable sources, that there is a plan in place to make an attempt against your life. We suggest you leave the city.' I did not think twice and the next day, I was out of the country," he says from his exile in a city he prefers not to name.